28 Jul 2022
Colorized transmission electron micrograph of monkeypox virus particles (blue). Credit: NIAID
26 July 2022, Oslo, Norway and London, UK – The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) today announces funding of up to US$375,000 to the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) to support the development of key laboratory tools to advance and standardise assessment of vaccines used to protect against Monkeypox, including the currently approved Smallpox vaccines.
Monkeypox has been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, following a second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) Emergency Committee. Over 16,000 cases have been reported worldwide to date, including changes in Monkeypox epidemiology in previously endemic countries.
The tools CEPI is supporting the development of are:
Assays, with the UKHSA, to test for the presence of specific antibodies—indicative of an immune response to Monkeypox—following either natural infection or vaccination.
A reference antibody standard, with the UK MHRA, to harmonise how different laboratories assess the strength and duration of immune responses generated by current vaccines and those in development against Monkeypox.
The tools will be made freely available—excluding admin fees—to the global scientific community* to provide a common standardised assessment between laboratories in different countries documenting vaccine performance against Monkeypox**. Data generated from their use will help to inform current vaccine development and deployment strategies, while also supporting the development and evaluation of Monkeypox diagnostics.
In its role as an outbreak response funder and facilitator, CEPI has been working with WHO and partners to explore and support additional R&D activities needed to advance Monkeypox vaccine development and enable equitable access to them.
The announcement follows the publication of a set of Temporary Recommendations from the WHO Director-General, as well as discussions held last month at CEPI’s Joint Coordination Group Meeting. Both identify the need for additional research into the use of existing vaccines to equitably protect against Monkeypox, with Joint Coordination Group meeting attendees raising and endorsing the need for a Monkeypox antibody standard and assays.
The dedicated CEPI funding forms part of the ‘Transform’ pillar of CEPI’s $3.5bn pandemic preparedness plan, which seeks to invest and scale critical enabling programmes to further accelerate vaccine development and deployment.
Chief Executive Officer, CEPI
Vaccines against Monkeypox are already licensed in some countries including e.g., the US and Canada by virtue of the development and licensure of a vaccine against the closely related pathogen, Smallpox, due to substantial and sustained prior investment in Smallpox R&D. However, more data are needed to confirm the extent to which they provide sufficient protection in the human populations now encountering the current circulating strains of Monkeypox.
The development of assays allows laboratory scientists to determine whether or not a vaccine has generated an immune response, through detecting for the presence of antibodies in the serum samples of participants who have either received a vaccine undergoing development (ie, in a clinical trial) or an approved vaccine.
An antibody standard would then be used to compare whether that antibody response provides a sufficient level of protection against the current circulating Monkeypox strain.
To create the antibody standard, serum samples from individuals infected during the current Monkeypox outbreak and recovered from disease will be collected and assessed by UK MHRA. Samples with the highest antibody levels will be pooled together to create the standard. Samples from vaccinated individuals can then be compared against the standard (acting as a comparator antibody) to allow researchers to better document and assess vaccine performance.
Chief Scientific Advisor at UKHSA
Chief Science and Innovation Officer, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency
Director-General, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control
In addition to the data collected from the use of a Monkeypox antibody standard and assays, further data still needs to be collected and analysed by WHO and other global partners to best advise and inform the global response. This includes looking at whether the virus has evolved to become more transmissible and the severity of symptoms and illness in those infected.
*The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization would review and approve the antibody standard before it could be deployed for international use.
**CEPI has previously supported the development of such standardised tools against other emerging infectious diseases including COVID-19, Lassa fever, MERS, Rift Valley fever, Ebola, and Nipah.
Further information on CEPI’s response to Monkeypox
Up to US$89k will be made available to the UK MHRA for development of a Monkeypox antibody standard.
Up to US$287k will be made available to the UKHSA to develop laboratory assays.
Using the Smallpox vaccine to tackle cases of Monkeypox is an example of the ‘vaccine libraries’ approach that CEPI is leading on as part of its $3.5bn pandemic preparedness plan. As it is not possible to develop vaccines against every single potential virus, CEPI aims to instead create prototype vaccines against whole virus families which could be ready to be pulled off the shelf and swiftly adapted the next time a new related virus emerges.
Further information on Monkeypox
Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in Smallpox patients (a closely related pathogen) although it is clinically less severe.
Monkeypox can affect anyone and is not associated with any particular group of people. In most cases, the symptoms of monkeypox go away on their own within a few weeks, but in some cases, they can lead to medical complications and even death2. Cases primarily occur in central and west Africa, often in proximity to tropical rainforests, and has been increasingly appearing in urban areas.
CEPI is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil organisations, launched at Davos in 2017, to develop vaccines against future epidemics. Prior to COVID-19, CEPI’s work focused on developing vaccines against Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, Rift Valley Fever virus and Chikungunya virus – it has over 20 vaccine candidates against these pathogens in development. CEPI has also invested in new platform technologies for rapid vaccine development against unknown pathogens (Disease X).
During the current pandemic, CEPI initiated multiple programmes to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants with a focus on speed, scale and access. These programmes leverage the rapid response platforms developed by CEPI’s partners prior to the emergence of COVID-19 as well as new collaborations. The aim is to advance clinical development of a diverse portfolio of safe and effective COVID-19 candidates and to enable fair allocation to these vaccines worldwide through COVAX.
CEPI’s 5-year plan lays out a $3.5 billion roadmap to compress vaccine development timelines to 100 days, develop a universal vaccine against COVID-19 and other Betacoronaviruses, and create a “library” of vaccine candidates for use against known and unknown pathogens. The plan is available at endpandemics.cepi.net.
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