ZIKA VIRUS (05): AMERICAS, PACIFIC, ASIA, RESEARCH, OBSERVATIONS

Posted on 27TH MAR 2017
tagged Zika Virus, Americas; Pacific; Asia

A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

In this update:
Cases in various countries:
Americas
Americas cumulative case numbers

Pacific
---
French Polynesia

Imported cases with no possibility of ongoing mosquito transmission
---
South Korea
USA:
- Case numbers mainland
- Territories and Commonwealth

[2] Geographic patterns
[3] _Culex_ mosquito vectors
[4] Virus in semen, UK

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Cases in various countries
Americas
---
Americas cumulative case numbers
As of 23 Mar 2017
http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1239...
Country / Locally acquired: suspected / Confirmed /Imported / Deaths / Conf. Congenital Syndrome
North America:
Bermuda / 0 / 0 / 6 / 0 / 0
Canada / 0 / 0 / 478 / 0 / 1
USA / 0 / 223 / 4842 / 0 / 61

Latin America:
Mexico / 0 / 8174 / 15 / 0 / 5

Central American Isthmus:
Belize / 816 / 73 / 0 / 0 / 0
Costa Rica / 6202 / 1759 / 32 / 0 / 2
El Salvador / 11 454 / 51 / 0 / 0 / 4
Guatemala / 3598 / 921 / 0 / 0 / 59
Honduras / 32 123 / 302 / 0 / 0 / 3
Nicaragua / 0 / 2060 / 3 / 0 / 2
Panama / 3962 / 869 / 42 / 0 / 5

Latin Caribbean:
Cuba / 0 / 187 / 58 / 0 / 0
Dominican Republic / 4900 / 345 / 0 / 0 / 54
French Guiana / 10 320 / 483 / 10 / 0 / 17
Guadeloupe / 30 845 / 382 / 0 / 0 / 14
Haiti / 2955 / 5 / 0 / 0 / 1
Martinique / 36 680 / 21 / 0 / 0 / 22
Puerto Rico / 0 / 39 559 / 137 / 5 / 12
Saint Barthelemy / 990 / 61 / 0 / 0 / 0
Saint Martin / 3215 / 200 / 0 / 0 / 1

Non-Latin Caribbean:
Anguilla / 29 / 22 / 1/ 0 / 0
Antigua and Barbuda / 465 / 14 / 2 / 0 / 0
Aruba / 880 / 34 / 7 / 0 / 0
Bahamas / 0 / 25 / 3/ 0 / 0
Barbados / 699 / 46 / 0 / 0 / 0
Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba / 0 / 343 / 0 / 0 / 0
Caymans / 217 / 31 / 10 / 0 / 0
Curacao / 2589 / 1259 / 0 / 0 / 0
Dominica / 1150 / 79 / 0 / 0 / 0
Grenada / 335 / 112 / 0 / 0 / 1
Guyana / 0 / 37 / 0 / 0 / 0
Jamaica / 7371 / 203 / 0 / 0 / 0
Montserrat / 18 / 5 / 0 / 0 / 0
Saint Kits and Nevis / 549 / 33 / 0 / 0 / 0
Saint Lucia / 822 / 50 / 0 / 0 / 0
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines / 508 / 83 / 0 / 0 / 0
Sint Maarten / 247 / 147 / 0 / 0 / 0
Suriname / 2767 / 723 / 0 / 4 / 4
Trinidad and Tobago / 0 / 718 / 1 / 0 / 3
Turks and Caicos / 175 / 25 / 3 / 0 / 0
Virgin Islands (UK) / 74 / 52 / 0 / 0 / 0
Virgin Islands (USA) / 1078 / 997 / 2 / 0 / 0

Andean Area:
Bolivia / 1362 / 434 / 4 / 0 / 14
Colombia / 97 629 / 9802 / 0 / 0 / 132
Ecuador / 2804 / 1058 / 15 / 0 / 0
Peru / 1949 / 904 / 22 / 0 / 0
Venezuela / 59 787 / 2413 / 0 / 0 / 0

[Brazil and] Southern Cone:
Brazil / 216 972 / 130 976 / 0 / 11 / 2386
Argentina / 2251 / 37 / 32 / 0 / 2
Chile / 0 / 0 / 33 / 0 / 0
Paraguay / 645 / 14 / 0 / 0 / 2
Uruguay / 0 / 0 / 1 / 0 / 0

Totals, Americas / 551 432 / 206 351 / 5759 / 20 / 2807

[Maps showing the location of the affected islands and countries in the Americas mentioned above and below can be accessed at
http://healthmap.org/promed/p/35574;
North America at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/106;
Central America http://healthmap.org/promed/p/39455;
Caribbean http://www.mapsofworld.com/caribbean-islands/ and
South America at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6186. - Mod.TY]

Pacific
---
French Polynesia. April 2017 [ahead of print]. (conf.) During 2013-2014, French Polynesia experienced an outbreak of Zika virus infection. Serosurveys conducted at the end of the outbreak and 18 months later showed lower than expected disease prevalence rates (49 percent) and asymptomatic:symptomatic case ratios (1:1) in the general population but significantly different prevalence rates (66 percent) and asymptomatic:symptomatic ratios (1:2) in schoolchildren.
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/16-1549_article

[The conventional concept is that 80 percent of Zika virus infections are inapparent. In the French Polynesia outbreak, apparently, there was a greater proportion of symptomatic infections: 50 percent in adults and 67 percent in school children. It would be interesting to know asymptomatic:symptomatic case ratios in Brazil, Colombia or other countries with a substantial number of cases.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of French Polynesia in the Pacific can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/31048. - Mod.TY]

Imported cases with no possibility of ongoing mosquito transmission (except USA Florida and Texas)
---
South Korea. 23 Mar 2017. (conf.) 19 cases, 1 recent case imported from Bolivia.
http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20170323000809

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of South Korea can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/195. - Mod.TY]

USA:
- Case numbers mainland. Zika virus disease in the United States, 2015-2017 as of 22 Mar 2017
http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/united-states.html
State / Symptomatic cases / Viremic blood donors
Alabama 40 / 0
Arizona 54 / 1
Arkansas 15 / 0
California 434 / 5
Colorado 57 / 0
Connecticut 58 / 0
Delaware 17 / 0
District of Columbia 34 / 0
Florida 1109 / 26
Georgia 110 / 0
Hawaii 16 / 0
Idaho 5 / 0
Illinois 94 / 0
Indiana 53 / 0
Iowa 27 / 1
Kansas 22 / 0
Kentucky 33 / 0
Louisiana 39 / 0
Maine 14 / 0
Maryland 134 / 0
Massachusetts 125 / 1
Michigan 69 / 0
Minnesota 64 / 0
Mississippi 25 / 0
Missouri 36 / 0
Montana 9 / 0
Nebraska 13 / 0
Nevada 22 / 2
New Hampshire 12 / 0
New Jersey 182 / 0
New Mexico 10 / 0
New York 1012 / 3
North Carolina 100 / 0
North Dakota 3 / 0
Ohio 85 / 0
Oklahoma 29 / 0
Oregon 48 / 0
Pennsylvania 1778 / 0
Rhode Island 54 / 0
South Carolina 54 / 0
South Dakota 2 / 0
Tennessee 61 / 0
Texas 317 / 3
Utah 22 / 0
Vermont 11 / 0
Virginia 114 / 0
Washington 71 / 0
West Virginia 11 / 1
Wisconsin 52 / 0
Wyoming 2 / 0
Total 5158 / 43

- Territories and Commonwealth:
Symptomatic / Blood donors
American Samoa 132 / 0
Puerto Rico 37 083 / 325
US Virgin Islands 997 / 0
Total 38 212 / 325
[A map of the USA showing the states and territories mentioned above can be accessed at http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/.]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail

and
Roland Hübner
Superior Health Council
Brussels
Belgium

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[2] Geographic patterns
Date: Tue 21 Mar 2017
Source: PeerJ 5:e3015; DOI 10.7717/peerj.3015 [edited]

Ying-Hen Hsieh (2017), Temporal patterns and geographic heterogeneity of Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in French Polynesia and Central America.

Abstract
Background
Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world.
Methods. We use a phenomenological model to ascertain the temporal patterns and transmission potential of ZIKV in various countries/territories, by fitting the model to Zika case data from Yap Island and French Polynesia in the Oceania region and 11 countries/territories with confirmed case data, namely, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, and Suriname, to pinpoint the waves of infections in each country/territory and to estimate the respective basic reproduction number R0.
Results. Six of these time series datasets resulted in statistically significant model fit of at least one wave of reported cases, namely that of French Polynesia, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Suriname and Saint Martin. However, only Colombia and Guatemala exhibited 2 waves of cases while the others had only one wave. Temporal patterns of the 2nd wave in Colombia and the single wave in Suriname are very similar, with the
respective turning points separated by merely a week. Moreover, the mean estimates of R0 for Colombia, Guatemala and Suriname, all land-based populations, range between 1.05 and 1.75, while the corresponding mean estimates for R0 of island populations in French Polynesia, Puerto Rico and Saint Martin are significantly lower with a range of 5.70-6.89. We also fit the Richards model to Zika case data from 6 main archipelagos in French Polynesia, suggesting the outbreak in all 6 island populations occurred during the same time, albeit with different peak time, with mean R0 range of 3.09-5.05.

Discussion. Using the same modeling methodology, in this study we found a significant difference between transmissibility (as quantified by R0) in island populations as opposed to land-based countries/territories, possibly suggesting an important role of geographic heterogeneity in the spread of vector-borne diseases and its future course, which requires further monitoring. Our result has potential implications for planning respective intervention and control policies targeted for island and land-based populations.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail

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[3] _Culex_ mosquito vectors
Date: Sat 1 Oct 2016 [note date]
Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. October 2016, 16(10): 673-676. doi:10.1089/vbz.2016.2058 [edited]
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vbz.2016.2058

Huang Yan-Jang S., Ayers Victoria B., Lyons Amy C., Unlu Isik, Alto Barry W., Cohnstaedt Lee W., Higgs Stephen, and Vanlandingham Dana L. _Culex_ Species Mosquitoes and Zika Virus.

Abstract
Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from _Culex_ species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from _Culex_ species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized _Culex_ species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of _Culex pipiens_ complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of _Culex_ species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on _Aedes_ species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that _Culex quinquefasciatus_ from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by _C. quinquefasciatus_, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically _Aedes aegypti_ and _Aedes albopictus_.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail

[Although this report was published in October 2016, it is worth including in this post because it reports another experiment indicating that _Culex quinqueasciatus_ is refractory to Zika virus infection. Only one report (http://www.nature.com/emi/journal/v5/n9/abs/emi2016102a.html) indicating that this mosquito species is an efficient vector has come to ProMED (Zika virus (50): Americas, Asia, Europe, Pacific, research, observations Archive Number: 20160922.4506931). - Mod.TY]

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[4] Virus in semen, UK
Date: April 2017 [ahead of print]
Source: Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):611-615 [edited] https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.16169
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/16-1692_article

Atkinson B, Thorburn F, Petridou C, Bailey D, Hewson R, Simpson A, et al. Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016.

Abstract
Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (57 percent) and was not detected in 9 (39 percent); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4 percent). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged.

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Communicated by:
ProMED-mail

[This report provides additional evidence of Zika virus in semen of convalescent men, with implications for the risk of transmission to sexual partners. - Mod.TY]

See Also
Zika virus (04): Americas, Asia Europe, research, observations 20170320.4912123
Zika virus (03): Americas, research 20170309.4888510
Zika virus (02): Americas, Asia, Africa, Pacific, research, observations 20170217.4846633
Zika virus (01): Americas, Asia, Africa, research 20170117.4772206
2016
----
Zika virus (63): Americas, Asia, research, observations 20161212.4693852
Zika virus (62): Americas, Asia, Europe, research, observations 20161207.4680914
Zika virus (61): Americas, Asia, Pacific, research 20161124.4650886
Zika virus (60) - Americas, Asia, research, observations 20161121.4644809
Zika virus (59) - Americas, Asia, research, comment 20161113.4625265
Zika virus (58): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Africa, research 20161110.4618543
Zika virus (57): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Europe, research, observations 20161104.4606432
Zika virus (56): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Europe, research, observations 20161023.4578711
Zika virus (55) - Americas, Asia, Europe, research, observations 20161019.4571149
Zika virus (54): Americas, PAHO/WHO 20161007.4542586
Zika virus (53): Americas, Asia, Pacific, research, observations 20161006.4541952
Zika & chikungunya viruses: comparative transmission 20161005.4539231
Zika virus (52)f: Americas, Asia, Europe, research, observations 20161001.4529740
Zika virus (51): Americas, PAHO/WHO 20160923.4511356
Zika virus (50): Americas, Asia, Europe, Pacific, research, observations 20160922.4506931
Zika virus (49): Americas, Asia, Europe, Middle East, research, notes 20160915.4491053
Zika virus (48): Americas, PAHO/WHO 20160909.4477370
Zika virus (47): Americas, Asia, research, observations 20160908.4475100
Zika virus (46): Americas, Asia, Europe, research, observations 20160905.4467034
Zika virus (45): worldwide, WHO, research, comment 20160904.4464015
Zika virus (43): Americas, Europe: Tampa Florida area, research 20160823.4436991.
Zika virus (45): worldwide, WHO, research, comment 20160904.4464015
Zika virus (42): Americas, Europe 20160821.4430310
Zika virus (41): Americas, Asia, Europe 20160812.4412646
Zika virus (40) - Americas 20160810.4407318
Zika virus (39): Americas, Europe 20160729.4378060
Zika virus (38) - Americas, Africa, Europe 20160725.4368191
Zika virus (37): Americas 20160722.4361791
Zika virus (36) - Americas: USA (FL, UT) RFI 20160720.4356276
Zika virus (34): Americas, Asia, Africa, Europe 20160707.4331999
Zika virus (33): Americas, Asia, Europe 20160701.4321150
Zika virus (32): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Europe 20160622.4303191
Zika virus (31): worldwide, WHO 20160617.4290853
Zika virus (30): Americas, Asia, Atlantic, Europe 20160616.4292221
Zika virus (29): Americas, Asia, Europe 20160529.4253278
Zika virus (28): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Atlantic, Europe 20160524.4240474
Zika virus (27): Americas, Asia, Europe 20160511.4214303
Zika virus (26): Americas, Asia, Europe, Indian Ocean 20160504.4202525
Zika virus (25): Americas 20160501.4195452
Zika virus (24): Americas 20160422.4177323
Zika virus (23): Americas 20160419.4168370
Zika virus (22): sexual transmission 20160416.4162854
Zika virus (21): Americas (Brazil) diagnostic imaging 20160415.4160993
Zika virus (20): Americas, Pacific, Asia, Europe 20160414.4160595
Zika virus (19): Americas 20160411.4152933
Zika virus (18): Americas 20160402.4134955
Zika virus (17): Americas, Pacific 20160401.4129524
Zika virus (16): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Atlantic 20160325.4118019
Zika virus (15): Americas 20160321.4109160
Zika virus (14): Americas, Europe, Atlantic Ocean 20160317.4102468
Zika virus (13): Americas, Asia, Europe, Pacific 20160311.4086075
Zika virus (12): Brazil, microcephaly 20160305.4070601
Zika virus (11): Americas, Europe, Asia 20160301.4059896
Zika virus (10): Americas, Asia, Europe, Pacific 20160229.4058161
Zika virus (09): Americas, Africa, Europe, Pacific 20160223.4042828
Zika virus (08): Americas, Asia, Europe, Pacific 20160217.4026836
Zika virus (07): update 20160216.4023810
ProMED-mail endorses sharing of Zika virus data 20160211.4012212
Zika virus (06): overview 20160209.4007411
Zika virus (05): Americas, Asia, Pacific 20160203.3990632
Zika virus (04): WHO declares worldwide PHEIC 20160201.3985366
Zika virus (03): Americas, Asia 20160128.3974426
Zika virus - Americas (02) 20160111.3925377
Zika virus - Americas (01) 20160108.3921447
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