MERS-COV (48): SAUDI ARABIA (MAKKA) ANIMAL RESERVOIR. CAMEL. SPREAD, OIE

Posted on 05TH DEC 2018
tagged MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia

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Date: Mon 3 Dec 2018
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2018; 31(49) [edited]
http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_ref...

MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia
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Information received on [and dated] 3 Dec 2018 from Dr Ali Al Doweriej, Director General of Veterinary Health and Monitoring Department, Veterinary Health and Monitoring Department, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, RIYADH, Saudi Arabia

Summary
Report type: follow-up report No. 7
Date of start of the event: 29 Dec 2015
Date of confirmation of the event: 20 Jan 2016
Reason for notification: emerging disease
Morbidity: 2.36%
Mortality: 0%
Zoonotic impact: No [see comment]
Causal agent: MERS-CoV

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Taif, Makkah
Date of start of the outbreak: 25 Sep 2018
Outbreak status: resolved (25 Oct 2018)
Epidemiological unit: farm
Affected animals
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of / Slaughtered
Camelidae / 82 / 13 / 0 / 0 / 0

Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Camelidae / 15.85 / 0 / 0 / 0

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: Unknown or inconclusive
Control measures
Measures applied: disinfection / disinfestation, screening, traceability, quarantine, surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone, no treatment of affected animals.
Measures to be applied: No other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type: Riyadh Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (National laboratory)
Species / Test / Test date / Result
Camelidae / real-time reverse transcriptase; polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) / 10 Oct 2018 / Positive

Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]

--
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[MERS in animals is not included in OIE list of reportable diseases. Following the initial information on human infection with a new corona virus coined as MERS-CoV ("Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus"), and suspected animal origin of the human infections, OIE published in July 2013 a press release (Q&A) in which the following was included:
- "If information from public health investigations identifies a possible animal source, OIE will support further joint investigations.
- "OIE member countries would be obliged to report a confirmed case of MERS-CoV in animals to OIE as an emerging disease in accordance with article 1.1.3 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. If MERS-CoV was identified in an animal, this would not necessarily mean that the animal is a source of human infection. Detailed investigations would then be needed to understand the relationship between any animal cases and human cases, and whether a finding in animals would be significant for human infection".

Following the said OIE announcement, Qatar became the 1st member-country which submitted to the OIE, in Nov 2013, an "Immediate notification" report on MERS infection in camelidae ( 20131129.2082115). This was followed by Oman (May 2014), Iran (Oct 2014), Saudi Arabia (Feb 2016) and Jordan (Aug 2016).

The summarized data which the OIE received from Saudi Arabia since the start of the reporting in late January 2016, is the following:
Total outbreaks: 17 (submitted)
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of / Slaughtered
Camelidae / 757 / 111 / 0 / 0 / 0
(details of all 8 reports and a map of the 17 'outbreaks', at http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/temp/reports/en_fup_0000028831_20181203_16393....

The above follow-up report states that the described outbreak had "no zoonotic impact", which means that no related human health issue was observed. It may thus be assumed that:
1. Clinical signs were seen in the dromedaries herd involved, or
2. The animals (which age?) did not show suspected clinical signs of MERS but were sampled due to a different reason, such as tests required for export purposes, or applied within an active surveillance. - Mod.AS]

See Also
MERS-CoV (14): Israel, animal reservoir, camelids 20180506.5787312
2017
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MERS-CoV (66): Burkina Faso, animal reservoir, camels, FAO, RFI 20171029.5411777
MERS-CoV (64): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, human, camel milk 20171012.5375933
MERS-CoV (62): animal reservoir, camels, FAO, OIE, WHO 20171002.5354608
MERS-CoV (40): animal reservoir, camels, review, FAO 20170619.5115999
MERS-CoV (29): Qatar, animal reservoir, camels 20170527.5066519
MERS-CoV (28): Qatar, Saudi Arabia (HA) 20170524.5059234
MERS-CoV (23): Saudi Arabia (AS) animal reservoir, human contact, OIE, RFI 20170421.4986081
MERS-CoV (21): Egypt, animal reservoir, camel, ex Sudan, control, RFI 20170405.4948727
MERS-CoV (18): Africa, animal reservoir, camels, 2015, research 20170331.4939980
2016
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MERS-CoV (87): Jordan, animal reservoir, camelids, OIE 20160802.4385317
MERS-CoV (66): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camelids, OIE, RFI 20160618.4294807
MERS-CoV (59): animal reservoir, review 20160610.4275921
MERS-CoV (40): Egypt, animal reservoir, camel, ex Sudan, susp. 20160316.4097730
MERS CoV (21): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, comment 20160216.4023772
MERS CoV (19): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, prevention, RFI 20160204.3995194
MERS-CoV (18): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, vaccination, comment 20160203.3990284
MERS-CoV (16): Saudi Arabia (MK) animal reservoir, OIE, RFI 20160201.3985175
MERS-CoV (11): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, vaccination, comment 20160126.3966528
MERS-CoV (09): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, vaccination considered 20160125.3963370
2015
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MERS-CoV (163): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, research, vaccine 20151219.3873486
MERS-CoV (155): animal reservoir, camel, research, RFI 20151110.3781744
MERS-CoV (154): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel, case control 20151105.3768115
MERS-CoV (143): Kenya, animal reservoir, camel, serosurveillance 20151017.3722887
MERS-CoV (141): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel debated, RFI 20151016.3720479
MERS-CoV (131): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camels, Hajj, RFI 20150914.3643612
MERS-CoV (130): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camels, Hajj 20150912.3641457
MERS-CoV (114): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camels, Hajj 20150823.3597358
MERS-CoV (104): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel debate 20150810.3569207
MERS-CoV (63): animal reservoir, bat 20150612.3432410
MERS-CoV (48): UAE (Dubai) animal reservoir, camel 20150527.3386738
MERS-CoV (29): UAE (Dubai) animal reservoir, camel 20150303.3204214
MERS-CoV (27): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel 20150302.3200502
MERS-CoV (12): animal reservoir, camels debated, case-control study, RFI 20150122.3109335
MERS-CoV (09): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camels debated 20150117.3098294
2014
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MERS-CoV (67): Iran (SB) animal reservoir, camel, ex Pakistan, RFI 20141219.3039497
MERS-CoV (49): Iran (SB), animal reservoir, camel conf, OIE 20141029.2912385
MERS-CoV (46): animal reservoir, camel, S.Arabia, vaccination, Iran susp, RFI 20141027.2904032
MERS-CoV (40): animal reservoir, camel, milk susp, RFI 20141022.2889778
MERS-CoV (24): animal reservoir, camel, experimental infection 20140929.2813981
MERS-CoV (09): animal reservoir, update, OIE, WHO 20140818.2700879
MERS-CoV (07): animal reservoir, camel, bat 20140720.2623848
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (79): Qatar (OIE) Kuwait (susp) animal res, RFI 20140611.2533756
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (77): S Arabia, Qatar, animal res, control, RFI 20140607.2525113
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (75): Animal res, camel, zoonotic aspects 20140604.2518134
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (66): Oman (SH), camel conf, OIE 20140523.2493556
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (62): Saudi Arabia, Africa, animal res., camel 20140517.2478989
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (46): Saudi Arabia, animal reservoir, camel 20140430.2440228
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (41): Oman, animal reservoir, camel 20140426.2432011
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (39): Qatar (RY) animal res., camel, OIE 20140424.2426491
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (34): animal reservoir, camel, Saudi Arabia, RFI 20140419.2414479
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (19): Saudi Arabia, UAE, WHO 20140325.2356854
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (10): camel, Sudan, Ethiopia 20140228.2307254
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (09): animal reservoir, camel, Saudi Arabia 20140227.2303420
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (02): animal reservoir, camel, UAE, serology 20140104.2151807
2013
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MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (106): animal reservoir, camel, Qatar, OIE 20131231.2145606
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (101): animal reservoir, camel, goat 20131217.2120936
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (98): animal reserv/camel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia 20131213.2114362
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (95): animal reservoir, camel, Qatar 20131129.2082942
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (94): UAE (Abu Dhabi), Qatar 20131129.2082330
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (93): animal res., camel conf, Qatar (RY) OIE 20131129.2082115
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (87): animal res. camel susp. precautions 20131113.2053932
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (85): animal reservoir, camel, susp, official 20131112.2051424
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (83): animal reservoir, camel, susp, RFI 20131112.2050868
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (75): role of bats in emergence, Saudi Arabia new cases 20131011.1996687
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (68): animal reservoir, camel, research 20130907.1929762
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (66): animal reservoir, discussion 20130904.1922998
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (61): animal reservoir, bat, comment 20130828.1907567
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (57): animal reservoir, bats 20130822.1895035
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (53): animal reservoir, serology, FAO 20130811.1875301
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (52): animal reservoir, research, serology 20130809.1872008
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (50): animal reservoir, OIE 20130727.1849047
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (48): animal reservoir, bat susp 20130725.1844412
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (39): animal reservoir, research 20130706.1810714
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (25): Saudi Arabia, genome 20130612.1768944
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (10): animal reservoir, research 20130524.1735984
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (03): animal reservoir, RFI 20130519.1723544
MERS-CoV - Eastern Mediterranean (02): WHO summary, ECDC risk assessments 20130518.1721873
Novel coronavirus - Eastern Mediterranean (15): camel exposure 20130405.1623188
Novel coronavirus - Eastern Mediterranean: bat reservoir 20130122.1508656
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