LASSA FEVER - WEST AFRICA (36): NIGERIA

Posted on 23RD NOV 2017
tagged Lassa Fever, West Africa; Nigeria

A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
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Date: Sun 5 Nov 2017
Source: Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Weekly Epidemiological Report Epi Week 44 [edited]
http://www.ncdc.gov.ng/reports/weekly

Lassa fever
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Please note that the data reflect the routine reports -- that is, all suspected cases including the laboratory positive and negative cases.

1. A total of 4 suspected cases of Lassa fever with one laboratory-confirmed were reported from 4 LGAs [local government areas] (2 states; Bauchi - 2 and Ondo - 2) in week 44 [w/e Sun 5 Nov 2017], 2017 compared with 5 suspected cases and 3 deaths (case fatality rate [CFR] 60 per cent) reported from 4 LGAs (4 states) at the same period in 2016.

2. Laboratory results of the four 4 suspected cases were one positive for Lassa fever (Ondo - 1) and 3 negative for Lassa fever and other VHFs [viral haemorrhagic fevers] (Bauchi - 2 and Ondo -1).

3. Between weeks 1 and 44 [2017], 602 suspected Lassa fever cases with 123 laboratory confirmed cases and 67 deaths (CFR 11 per cent) from 92 LGAs (27 states) were reported compared with 864 suspected cases with 88 laboratory confirmed cases and 105 deaths (CFR 12.2 per cent) from 139 LGAs (29 states) during the same period in 2016 (figure 1, in URL above).

4. Between weeks 1 and 52 [2016], 921 suspected Lassa fever cases with 109 laboratory confirmed cases and 119 deaths (CFR, 12.9 per cent) from 144 LGAs (28 states and FCT [Federal Capital Territory]) were reported compared with 430 suspected cases with 25 laboratory confirmed cases and 40 deaths (CFR 9.3 per cent) from 37 LGAs (14 states and FCT) during the same period in 2015 (figure 2, in URL above).

5. Investigation and active case search ongoing in affected states with coordination of response activities by the NCDC with support from partners:
5.1. National Lassa Fever Working Group meeting and weekly National Surveillance and Outbreak Response meeting on-going at NCDC to keep abreast of the current Lassa fever situation in the country;
5.2. Response materials for VHFs provided to support states;
5.3. New VHF guidelines have been developed by the NCDC (National Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers Preparedness guidelines, Infection Prevention and Control of VHF and Standard Operating Procedures for Lassa fever management) and are available on the NCDC website: http://ncdc.gov.ng/diseases/guidelines;
5.4. VHF case-based forms completed by affected states are being entered into the new VHF management system. This system allows for the creation of a VHF database for the country. Data from the VHF database is currently being analysed to inform decision making in the coming year [2018];
5.5. Confirmed cases are being treated at identified treatment/isolation centres across the states with ribavirin and necessary supportive management also instituted;
5.6. Onsite support was earlier provided to Ogun, Nasarawa, Taraba, Ondo and Borno States by the NCDC and partners;
5.7. Offsite support provided by NCDC/partners in all affected states;
5.8. States are enjoined to intensify surveillance and promote infection prevention and control (IPC) measures in health facilities.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail

[The numbers of Lassa fever cases continue to increase gradually. This is not surprising. As noted in earlier comments, Lassa fever remains a problem in Nigeria because the virus is endemic there. Virus transmission to humans occur when people are in contact with the reservoir rodent host, the multimammate mouse (in the genus _Mastomys_) or their excreta. Transmission also occurs in health facilities when personal protective equipment is not employed and barrier-nursing practices are not adequate to protect staff from blood and secretions of infected patients.

Images of mastomys mice, the rodent reservoir of Lass fever virus, can be seen at https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/45326-Mastomys-natalensis.

Maps of Nigeria can be accessed at http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/nigeria.pdf and http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62. - Mod.TY]

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