LASSA FEVER - WEST AFRICA (29): NIGERIA

Posted on 05TH AUG 2017
tagged Lassa Fever, West Africa; Nigeria

A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Fri 28 Jul 2017
Source: Nigeria Centre for Disease Control [NCDC] Weekly Epidemiological Report 7(28) [edited]
http://www.ncdc.gov.ng/reports/weekly

1. Lassa fever
Please note that the data reflect routine reports -- that is, all suspected cases including the laboratory positive and negative cases
1.1. 6 suspected cases of Lassa fever with 3 laboratory confirmed and one death (case fatality rate [CFR] 17 per cent) were reported from 5 LGAs [local government areas] (3 states; Katsina - 1, Ondo - 2 and Plateau - 3) in week 28, 2017 compared with one case from Ibadan North LGA (Oyo State) at the same period in 2016.
1.2. Laboratory results of the 6 suspected cases were 3 positives (Plateau - 1 and Ondo - 2) for Lassa fever while 3 were negative (Katsina -1 & Plateau - 2) for Lassa fever and other viral haemorrhagic fevers [VHFs].
1.3. Between weeks 1 and 28 (2017), 338 suspected Lassa fever cases with 85 laboratory confirmed cases and 55 deaths (CFR 16 per cent) from 66 LGAs (22 states) were reported compared with 745 suspected cases with 72 laboratory confirmed cases and 87 deaths (CFR 12 per cent) from 127 LGAs (27 states) during the same period in 2016 (figure 1: see URL above).
1.4. Between weeks 1 and 52 2016, 921 suspected Lassa fever cases with 109 laboratory confirmed cases and 119 deaths (CFR, 13 per cent) from 144 LGAs (28 states and the Federal Capital Territory [FCT]) were reported compared with 430 suspected cases with 25 laboratory confirmed cases and 40 deaths (CFR 9 per cent) from 37 LGAs (14 states and FCT) during the same period in 2015 (figure 2: see URL above).
1.5. Investigation and active case search ongoing inthe affected states with coordination of response activities by the NCDC with support from partners.
1.5.1. National Lassa Fever Working Group meetings and weekly National Surveillance and Outbreak Response meetings are ongoing at NCDC to keep abreast of the current Lassa fever situation in the country.
1.5.2. Response materials for VHFs prepositioned across the country by NCDC at the beginning of the dry season.
1.5.3. New VHF guidelines have been developed by the NCDC (interim national viral haemorrhagic fevers preparedness guidelines and standard operating procedures for Lassa fever management).
1.5.4. Ongoing reclassification of reported Lassa fever cases.
1.5.5. Ongoing review of the variables for case-based surveillance for VHF.
1.5.6. VHF case-based forms completed by affected states are being entered into the new VHF management system. This system allows for the creation of a VHF database for the country.
1.5.7. NCDC team sent to Edo State to support Lassa fever data harmonization and updating of VHF case-based management database.
1.5.8. Confirmed cases are being treated at identified treatment/isolation centres across the states with Ribavirin and necessary supportive management also instituted.
1.5.9. Onsite support was earlier provided to Ogun, Nasarawa, Taraba, Ondo and Borno States by the NCDC and partners.
1.5.10. Offsite support provided by NCDC/partners in all affected states.
1.5.11. NCDC and partners are providing onsite support in Ondo and Plateau State.
1.5.12. States are enjoined to intensify surveillance and promote Infection, Prevention and Control (IPC) measures in health facilities.

Figure 1: Map of Nigeria showing areas affected by Lassa fever, week 1- 28, 2016 and 2017
Figure 2: Map of Nigeria showing areas affected by Lassa fever, week 1 - 53, 2015 and week 1 - 52, 2016

Table of cases by state, cumulative data weeks 1-26 [1 Jan-2 Jul 2017]:
State: Cases / Laboratory confirmed / Deaths
Adamawa: 6 / 0 / 2
Akwa Ibom 1 / 1 / 0
Bauchi: 10 / 3 / 3
Cross River: 7 / 0 / 1
Ebonyi: 4 / 1 / 1
Edo: 123 / 29 / 9
Enugu: 1 / 1 / 1
FCT: 2 / 0 / 0
Gombe: 17 / 0 / 1
Jigawa: 1 / 0 / 0
Kadun: 1 / 0 / 0
Kano: 23 / 2 / 10
Katsina: 4 / 0 / 0
Kebbi: 1 / 0 / 1
Kogi: 3 / 1 / 1
Nasarawa: 28 / 6 / 2
Ogun: 13 / 1 / 0
Ondo: 27 / 18 / 6
Plateau: 21 / 9 / 7
Rivers: 6 / 1 / 0
Taraba: 38 / 12 / 9
Yobe: 1 / 0 / 1
Total: 338 / 85 / 55
320 / 79 / 53

--
communicated by:
Olutayo Olajide Babalobi
Lecturer and Consultant Epizootiologist
(One Health, Participatory Epizootiology and Veterinary ICT Research Group)
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

[Cases have increased by 18 confirmed, 6 laboratory confirmed and 2 deaths over the past 2 weeks.

Once again, ProMED-mail thanks Dr Olutayo Olajide Babalobi for sending in the Epidemiological Report above.

As noted in earlier comments, Lassa fever remains a problem in Nigeria because the virus is endemic there. Virus transmission to humans occurs when people are in contact with the reservoir rodent host, the multimammate mouse (in the genus _Mastomys_) or their excreta. Transmission also occurs in health facilities when personal protective equipment is not employed and barrier-nursing practices are not adequate to protect staff from blood and secretions of infected patients.

Images of mastomys mice, the rodent reservoir of Lass fever virus, can be seen at http://www.ispot.org.za/node/255877.

Maps of Nigeria can be accessed at http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/nigeria.pdf and http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62. - Mod.TY]

See Also

Lassa fever - West Africa (28): Nigeria 20170727.5208474
Lassa fever - West Africa (27): Nigeria 20170714.5173313
Lassa fever - West Africa (26): Nigeria 20170710.5162466
Lassa fever - West Africa (25): Nigeria 20170629.5140763
Lassa fever - West Africa (24): Nigeria 20170626.5130588
Lassa fever - West Africa (23): Nigeria (ON) 20170622.5124247
Lassa fever - West Africa (22): Nigeria (AN) 20170620.5118831
Lassa fever - West Africa (21): Nigeria 20170617.5112720
Lassa fever - West Africa (20): Nigeria 20170607.5088880
Lassa fever - West Africa (19): Nigeria 20170604.5082193
Lassa fever - West Africa (18): Nigeria 20170530.5070103
Lassa fever - West Africa (17): Nigeria 20170513.5033800
Lassa fever - West Africa (16): Nigeria (BA) 20170412.4967018
Lassa fever - West Africa (15): Nigeria (KO) 20170404.4947996
Lassa fever - West Africa (14): Nigeria 20170402.4943005
Lassa fever - West Africa (13): update 20170328.4931422
Lassa fever - West Africa (12): Nigeria 20170327.4929174
Lassa fever - West Africa (11): Nigeria 20170319.4911462
Lassa fever - West Africa (09): Nigeria (BO) 20170302.4875164
Lassa fever - West Africa (07): Nigeria (BA) 20170225.4864837
Lassa fever - West Africa (06): Nigeria 20170225.4862689
Lassa fever - West Africa (05): Nigeria (NA) 20170215.4842179
Lassa fever - West Africa (03): Nigeria (RI) 20170122.4782917
Lassa fever - West Africa (02): Nigeria (NA) 20170118.4773375
Lassa fever - West Africa (01): Nigeria (OG) 20170101.4735363
.................................................ty/ec/sh